Third global paradigm

Manifesto of the third synergetic paradigm

We are a group of scientists for more than forty years have been actively developing a new direction in science and human thinking, which is designated as the synergetics. On this basis, we make a number of statements and forecasts on the contemporary scientific and social condition of mankind, and prospects for its future development. 1. We have amassed enough evidence that synergetics is the third global paradigm (historically: the first – second – deterministic, stochastic). Underestimation of this fact by scientists, politicians, religious leaders, all of the intellectual community hampers the dynamic development of humankind as a whole. The emergence and development of synergetics is a natural evolution of the history. Even the ancient Greeks allocated classes of objects (human life, river current and others) which had several unique properties (now we distinguish five such main properties). These properties relate to the chaotic dynamics of the conduct of any state vector (synergistic) object, phenomenon, a process that cannot be described accurately – even on a short time interval and in small areas of space, and forecast of the dynamic development is fundamentally impossible without the artificial task of required external operating influences. Humanity, within the framework of the synergetics development and its approval as the third paradigm, now recognizes its reality for forecasting the future by the way of artificial transfer of objects, phenomena, processes from one state’s attractor to another. After several centuries of creation and development of deterministic and stochastic paradigms that have significantly advanced the development of physics, chemistry, technology, and attracted their achievements at the service of humanity, science has actually approached to exploration of synergistic objects, phenomena, processes. These include: a man (his organism in norm and pathology, mental and social activities), society and civilization as a whole, science (all of the topics of sociology, political science, …, worldview in general), all single and unique processes (Earth's biosphere, which, with the external governing effects can transit into noosphere, according to V.I. Vernadsky, planets, solar systems, galaxies and the Universe as a whole). In principle all these objects are not reproducible and unique; therefore they are not objects of study of traditional science, based on determinism and stochastic processes. However, traditional science continues to develop, by studying the available objects, processes, phenomena – in the context of deterministic and stochastic paradigms. In stipulating that consciousness and human brain also represent a single and unique process and object, we affirm that their study should be carried out within synergy, including through artificially created governing external impacts, i.e. by forming a synergistic worldview, on which insisted V.I. Vernadsky, V. Ebeling, Í. Haken, S.P. Kurdyumov. 2. There has come the era of synergic paradigm capable to explain dynamics of social processes which requires from humanity not passive studying (by scientific contemplation) and attempts to predict the future, but actively designing it constantly, setting external operating influences. Now in the world economic system there are associations (eight and twenty) which are engaged precisely in it. However, the synergetics demands distribution of the principles (active designing of the future) on the main priority: transition from technological society to knowledge-based, synergistic, post-industrial society. The new understanding and comprehension of previous and current processes in a science, culture, religions and outlook are based on the main, fractal (self-similar) law of dynamic development of any complex system based on the triad: determinism, stochastics, synergetrics (chaos). The last means unity and conflict of opposites: self-organizing and order – chaos and accidents, definiteness – indefiniteness, individual and casual – mass, standard and reiterative. It is already impossible to characterize primitively synergetrics as a science studying conditions of transition from chaos to order (and on the contrary), or as a science about complex, nonlinear systems (complexity, nonlinear dynamics), or as a science about self-organizing (accompanying transitions «chaos – order – chaos»), or as a science about behaviour of complex systems in critical points (points of bifurcation and points of accidents). Now it is appropriate to talk about giving synergetic the role of the third paradigm which covers large clusters of objects with five special (man-measured) properties which dynamics can be described in multidimensional phase space (in which the coordinates are order parameters of these systems or processes when they are described by the system state vector). 3. What is characteristic feature of the third paradigm and synergetic objects, processes, phenomena which it covers and tries to predict their future condition, and what is the difference of two previous paradigms from the third synergetic paradigm? The key factor for answers to this and other, not less complicated questions, is disclosing of deeper sense of concepts “definiteness” and “indefiniteness” in all spheres of human activity. It is known that up to the end of ÕIÕ and the beginning of XX century the deterministic approach in science dominated. All the processes were described by points, lines, functions and state in space, and in the mathematics the Cauchy problem was generally accepted: the assignment of initial system parameters in formulating the dynamics equations (differential, difference, integrated) defined the further dynamic trajectory of system behavior and its final state at any moment. All three states (initial, any intermediate and final) were always precisely defined (deterministically). With formation of the stochastic paradigm there was an uncertainty of a final state (but the initial state should always be precisely defined and repeatable, otherwise stochastic principles don't work). Thus it was necessary to set distribution function. Anyway the initial condition of object, phenomenon, process in stochastic should be definite, reproducible, repeatable. Intermediate conditions could be not defined. In the context of synergetic paradigm the initial state of the system (within Í. Haken's and this manifesto authors’ views) cannot be defined essentially (the object is very complex, consisting of many components, interaction laws between these elements aren't clear, moreover, basically they can't be described and studied). A typical example is the human brain: nobody knows how its neurons work and interact. And the man constantly changes (is ill, grows old, neurons die off). We deal with the most complicated dynamic system and it isn't obviously possible to learn its initial state, to predict dynamics of brain development, especially, its final state. Synergetics is exploring objects such as the brain, with complete uncertainty and in the mathematical theory of chaos the objects with partial uncertainty are studied (the initial parameters of system state should be defined). Thus, in science there is complete definiteness (in the frameworks of deterministic paradigm), partial indefiniteness (in the frameworks of stochastic paradigm) and the complete indefiniteness (in the frameworks of synergetic paradigm). The similar situation is available in sociology. Historically all types of the states were based on the deterministic basis. They had traditionalistic structure: top level is the hierarch (the feudal lord, the prince, the emperor, the Secretary General of the Central Committee) which is obeyed by the lower striations. The society was rigidly determined. The willfulness (the stochastic deviations) was followed by tearing from society, expulsion or death. The arrival of capitalist relations has caused transition of a society to the technological, stochastic state. The striations (parties, communities of like-minded people, etc.) became hierarchs. Inside striations there is a certain dispersion of opinions and behaviour, however, limited. The technological stochastic society has provided liberties to the person and has become more productive, creative, dynamic and adaptable. In the knowledge-based, synergistic, post-industrial society it is possible to realize a principle: unit is everything, unit is nothing. People in this society will live by the principles of self-organization, I. Kant wrote: “you must do so as maxima of your wishes must satisfy the wishes of all mankind”. There is a seeming maximum of uncertainty from a society in dynamics of person’s behaviour and mankind (the big freedom), therefore internal (for the separate person) and external (for all society) operating influences are extremely necessary. This society should become self-directed and self-predicted. The man and mankind should design the future for what it is necessary to change priorities: not to envy well-being of neighbours, but to seek the stability of the entire mankind, solve problems of its survival not only on Earth but also in space. The change of paradigms has been also observed in religions. So, in the Middle Ages the Christianity was rigidly determined system (inquisition!). Technologically advanced stochastic society provides possibility for dialogue between faiths (earlier there were wars and Crusades). In the knowledge-based, synergistic, post-industrial society the role of the religion can be special – directing and replacing. The science will be for those whose engagement in it will be not difficult, and for the others some modified religion as synergetic outlook without the essential scientific content is possible. Similar evolutionary fractal processes are observed in the arts and culture. So, there was transition from realism (determinism) of the Middle Ages to impressionism (stochastics) of the end of the XIX century, and then – to abstractionism and surrealism (synergetics) of the XX century. Artists have overtaken time to some extent (as well as musicians with their avant-garde music). The chaotic compositions on the canvases are similar to virtualistics and principles of I. Wallerstein: «We would be wiser, if formulated our purposes in the light of constant uncertainty and considered it not as our trouble and temporary blindness, but as tremendous possibility for imagination, creation and search. Plurality becomes not indulgence for weak or ignorant, but Horn of plenty to make the world better. This is the way to deal with many contemporary musical, or artistic composition (each person chooses his/her own version of the artistic image, artistic themes). From this perspective, artists (such as Gaudi's architecture of Spain), have made faster shift from technological society to knowledge-based, synergistic, post-industrial society. This transition is virtual, it won't be coordinated with other transformations (sciences, societies). Complexity and uncertainty is observed in fiction that is consistent with the overall dynamics of the transformation from determinism to stochastic processes and synergetics. It is important to note the dynamics of the philosophy from classical (natural philosophy based on determinism) to neo-classical (analog of physics – the relativity theory, the principle of Heisenberg, associated with stochastic approach), and then to the post-neoclassical philosophy, based on the synergetic paradigm. It is the third paradigm that covers all human activities, knowledge of the general laws of man-measured, evolving, variable systems with compartment-cluster structure. What is the role of synergetics in forecasts of the mankind’s future? The third synergetic paradigm postulates necessity to define the future to (predict) virtually, and then by means of scientific substantiations to set external operating influences which will provide this future. Mankind has approached to an awareness of the fact that the world is described in the framework of the third synergetic paradigm where uncertainty and chaos are the leading concepts, where external controlling actions form the basis of scientific knowledge and design future, where a man realizes the brevity of its existence, and the main meaning of life becomes struggle for the survival of humanity, at least in near space. All this will require from every inhabitant of the Earth to be actively engaged in science (fundamental and applied), which will help to make the world more sustainable, capable of long-term survival. The main task and purpose of knowledge-based, synergistic, post-industrial society is to convert humanity into a stable attractor of existence on the basis of universal science. This must change attitudes, the main objectives and values of each individual (especially the leaders of States), the society structure and science in general (it should be an international, global, mass and trans-disciplinary). December, 2010.